Are triumphant displays learned or hard-wired?


By Tamsin Osborne ARE the actions of throwing our arms in the air when we win and slumping our shoulders when we lose innate or learned by watching others? A study of blind athletes suggests they are hard-wired – and may have evolved as a way of asserting a position in a social hierarchy. David Matsumoto of San Francisco State University and Jessica Tracy of the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, took photos of blind athletes winning and losing judo matches during the Paralympic Games in 2004,
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